Chapter Eight - worldcons of the 1960s [working title]
the evolution of the world science fiction convention during the 1960s

Richard Lynch
P.O. Box 3120
Gaithersburg, MD 20885 USA


Comments on this outline-in-progress are requested!!!
(last modified on December 21, 2000)


(need a brief historical overview of how worldcon was begun, and how it evolved 
 prior to 1960s)

* Worldcons of 1960s typified by ever-increasing attendance, and codification
  of rules for conducting them
  - the 1960 Pittcon had 568 attendees, but by 1969, attendance had grown to
    over 1500
    > ramping-up of attendance would continue into the 1970s and beyond, to
      where the worldcon would become a mega-convention that only the largest
      cities could host and many of the traditions such as the banquet would
      fall by the wayside
    > on the other hand, even by the early 1960s, the growth of fandom was
      bringing changes to the worldcon that many fans weren't happy with
      -- John Baxter perhaps spoke for many fans when he wrote in 1963 that
         "The sad fact of the matter is that SF has had an ever-diminishing
         place in the World Convention set-up these days.  The introduction of
         a comic book forum is just the latest and most noticeable step in a
         gradual process of watering down.  There is precious little sf
         material on the Worldcon programme now.  As many fans have complained
         recently, the phrase 'World Science Fiction Convention' is decidedly
         doubtful -- the sf world as a whole has little to do with it, and
         concerns itself hardly at all with science ficton."
  - after the 1962 Worldcon, a committee established to study "the whole 
    question of continuity and codification of the mixtures of traditions and
    ancient resolutions that the conventions were operated under."
    > committee consisted of George Scithers, Howard DeVore, and Steve
    > result was a new constitution and bylaws for an unincorporated World
      Science Fiction Society that was basis of rules that were used to govern
      worldcons for decades afterward
      -- was adopted at the 1963 Discon, but did not at first meet universal
         >> Ted White, co-chairman of the 1967 Worldcon, maintained that
            "convention committees are autonomous and have always been so. 
            Nothing decided at one convention has any binding effect upon the
            --- he announced that the 1967 Worldcon "will have no business
                session other than that for consite selection.  Business 
                sessions are an absolute farce and a total waste of time."
                >>> upon further consideration, however, White must have had
                    a change of mind, because his decision was later rescinded
  - rules for bidding for worldcons tinkered with, as they continued to grow
    > at start of the decade, a three zone system was in place, covering North
      -- western, central, eastern in that order
      -- bids were still decided only one year in advance
      -- if a non-North American committee won, as did London in 1957, the
         rotation was simply delayed a year, without any zone losing its place
         >> Willis quote (what was it?) that South Gate in '58 was only
            possible because of the 1957 Loncon ((need exact quote here))
    > this 3-zone rotation was adopted by the 1963 constitution, but it didn't
      last very long
      -- were complaints that the presence of foreign bids made longer-term
         bidding very chancy, since you never knew for sure what year your bid
         would be eligible
      -- this led to a four-zone system, with bids outside of North America
         getting their own zone
    > eventually, this was changed (at the 1968 Worldcon) so that foreign bids
      would be eligible only every fifth year
      -- however, this plan never went fully into effect
      -- at the next year's worldcon (St.Louiscon), it was voted "That the
         five-year plan as adopted at the Baycon be changed back to the
         original three-year rotation plan as set up before the adoption of
         the four year rotation plan.  Effective as of 1971."
    > meanwhile, by end of decade, worldcons had grown so large and
      complicated to put on that lead time was finally changed from one year
      to two years
      -- in 1969, at St.Louiscon, for the first time two future worldcons were
         >> Heidelberg, Germany for 1970
            --- to be first worldcon in non-English speaking country
         >> Boston for 1971
    > the old, formerly discredited idea of the "rump worldcon" also
      resurfaced, but in a bright new re-packaging
      -- idea was originally discredited in 1950, when New York fandom planned
         an alternate convention parallel to Portland's Norwescon
      -- at 1968 Worldcon, the idea emerged of having a North American
         convention in the years that the Worldcon could be reached only by a
         trans-oceanic trip
         >> Tony Lewis of Boston was credited for coining the name for it:
            NASFiC, for "North American Science Fiction Convention"
      -- idea was discussed in regional conventions and adopted at the 1969
         Worldcon, but again, never fully implemented
         >> what was adopted at St.Louiscon was revolutionary to the point of
            being radical: a plan was set up to establish a true worldcon,
            that would rotate among the continents, with the idea that it
            would leave North America every other year
            --- would be an annual NASFiC, which would assume the title of
                "Worldcon" when it was North America's turn to host it
         >> problem was, the non-North American fans were not prepared to host
            as large and complicated a convention as Worldcon every other year
            --- at the 1970 Worldcon, the whole thing was scrapped, and the
                return to three North American zones was reinstated
                >>> as before, non-North American bids could take place for
                    any year, but if one won, then that North American zone
                    would be skipped so as not to disrupt other future bidders
            --- concept of the NASFiC would resurface again, and finally be
                adopted in the early 1970s, to the consternation of many fans
                for decades afterwards
  - finally, fans continued to tinker with rules surrounding the Hugo Awards
    > in 1964, the Pacificon II business meeting voted to appoint a committee
      to study the Hugo nominations system
      -- study committee consisted of Tony Boucher, Dick Lupoff, Harlan
         Ellison, Ethel Lindsay, and Dr. Josef Nesvadba
         >> they were to study nominations system and present report at the
            1965 Worldcon on suggested changes
      -- even went so far as to set up a nominating committee, which would
         have removed the nomination process from fans at large and placed it
         in the hands of an small so-called 'panel of experts'
         >> fortunately, the next year's Loncon II committee refused to go
            along with this idea, and the ability to nominate Hugo Awards
            finalists has remaind with the fans ever since
            --- this decision did not go without its own share of controversy:
                George Scithers wrote that London had tacitly accepted motions
                passed at Oakland by bidding during the Oakland business 
                session, and that further, the unincorporated World Science
                Fiction Society that was created at the 1963 Worldcon was in
                fact a continuing body, whose by-laws and motions should not
                be ignored without due cause
            --- Bill Donaho, on the other hand, wrote that London shouldn't be
                restricted in the honest performance of its duties by such
                enactments, and supported the Loncon committee in its
                administering the Hugo Awards in whatever way they saw fit
  - amidst all the upheavals and changes going on in fandom during the 1960s,
    the worldcons remained as the most durable connection to earlier fan eras
* 1960 Pittsburgh (Pittcon) (Sept. 2-5, 1960)
  - Dirce Archer, chair
    > (mini bio goes here)
  - James Blish, GoH
  - 568 in attendance
  - Penn-Sheraton Hotel
  - 1st Worldcon Art Show
  - Bjo's unicorn costume
  - Hugo Awards
    > presentation ceremony telecast by KDKA TV station
    > E. E. Evans Big Heart Award presented by Ackerman to Sam Moskowitz
    > Novel:  STARSHIP TROOPERS by Robert A. Heinlein
      -- Heinlein made one of his infrequent convention appearances, arriving
         just in time to stride into the banquet hall at the proper moment to
         receive his award; such exquisite timing made many attendees wonder
         if it was really a coincidence
    > Short Fiction:  "Flowers for Algernon" by Daniel Keyes
      -- Keyes was at convention, in one of his few convention appearances
         >> described by Moskowitz as "a short, pudgy, pleasant man"
    > Professional Magazine:  FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION
      -- as much as Heinlein was timely, Robert Mills, the magazine's editor,
         was untimely; he had had to leave the convention earlier that day,
         and missed the opportunity to receive the award when it was announced
    > Fanzine:  CRY OF THE NAMELESS (ed. F.M. & Elinor Busby, Burnett Toskey
      and Wally Weber)
    > Professional Artist:  Ed Emshwiller
    > Dramatic Presentation:  The Twilight Zone
    > Special Hugo Award:  Hugo Gernsback as "The Father of Magazine Science
      -- Gernsback not present at ceremony
  - Business meeting
    > limited voting on Hugo Awards only to convention members
      -- ballot-stuffing attempt to get Hugo for R. Lionel Fanthorpe
         >> 70 ballots received from small English town of population less
            than 7000
         >> none of voters' names recognizable to prominent British fans
* 1961 Seattle (Seacon)  (Sept. 2-4, 1961)
  - Wally Weber, chair
  - Robert A. Heinlein, GoH
    > Heinlein kept his room open to all and provided refreshments
    > GoH speech very pessimistic, predicted that one-third of those present
      would be dead before too long as a result of wars and survivalist raids
  - 300 in attendance (Moskowitz claims the attendance was 270)
  - Hyatt House Hotel
  - $45 most paid for a painting (by Bob Pavlat, Bill Evans, & Jim Caughran)
  - Hugo Awards
    > Novel:  A CANTICLE FOR LEIBOWITZ by Walter M. Miller, Jr.
      -- some thought Algis Budris's ROGUE MOON should have won
    > Short Fiction:  "The Longest Voyage" by Poul Anderson
    > Professional Magazine:  ASTOUNDING SCIENCE FICTION / ANALOG
    > Fanzine:  WHO KILLED SCIENCE FICTION? (ed. Earl Kemp)
      -- one-shot (appeared in SAPS)
      -- rules change later made to prevent recurrence of one-shot winning
    > Professional Artist:  Ed Emshwiller
    > Dramatic Presentation:  THE TWILIGHT ZONE
  - Site selection of Chicago for next worldcon
    > Earl Kemp so confident of winning, he showed up with membership cards
      already printed, and ready for sale/distribution
    > painting by Weird Tales cover artist Margaret Brundage was auctioned,
      became first actual contribution toward the Chicago worldcon
* 1962 Chicago (Chicon III)
  - Earl Kemp, chair
  - NFFF considered working partner for con committee
    > entire con committee joined NFFF
    > ran a coffee and cookie hospitality room
  - Theodore Sturgeon, GoH
  - 550 in attendance
  - membership fee was $3, up from $1 for Chicon II ten years earlier
  - Pick-Congress Hotel
    > inexpensive rates: $7 single, $13 double, suites $25, parking $0.35
    > however, the convention had to share the hotel with two other conventions
      [source: Mallardi article in MIMOSA 26]
      -- there was a U.S. Navy Seabees World War Two reunion, attendees of which
         Bill Mallardi later remembered "were loud, rowdy, and most of the time
         as drunk as a skunk"
      -- there was also a group of Catholic teen-age boys and girls who were being
         escorted by priests and nuns; they were put off by all the science fiction
         fans to the point where they would almost literally hug the walls when fans
         walked past them in hotel corridors, yet were able to screw up their courage
         to gate crash the Chicon masquerade ball, dancing the 'Twist' even more than
         the fans did
  - Willis returns to Chicago
    > this time, a special fan fund had brought both Walt and Madeleine to a Chicago
  - Jerry Pournelle takes IQs of fans
  - programming tracks
    > lectures, speeches by prominent pros in sf and science
      -- NASA represented
    > Ed Emshwiller brought some of his 16mm films
    > one of the most popular program items was Bob Bloch's slide show, "Monsters I
      Have Known", which featured a rapid machine-gun delivery of puns and humorous
      commentary that Bloch was famous for
  - Bjo's Project Art Show features Photo Salon
  - Costume party: "The Hell-Fire Club Masquerade Ball"
    > professional orchestra was hired for the event
    > Dave & Ruth Kyle, Steve & Virginia Schultheis, Jock Root win prize as
      Flash Gordon adventure characters (Dave was Ming the Merciless)
  - Hugo Awards
    > Bob Tucker was awards banquet MC
    > Novel:  STRANGER IN A STRANGE LAND by Robert A. Heinlein
      -- once again, as he'd done two years earlier in Pittsburgh, Heinlein made
         a dramatic entry to the Hugo Awards banquet just as his name was being
         read as the winner; but even though fans had seen that act before, they
         still gave him a standing ovation [source: Mallardi article in MIMOSA 25]
    > Short Fiction:  the "Hothouse" series by Brian W. Aldiss
    > Professional Magazine:  ANALOG
    > Fanzine:  WARHOON (ed. Richard Bergeron)
    > Professional Artist:  Ed Emshwiller
    > Dramatic Presentation:  THE TWILIGHT ZONE
    > Special Committee Award:  Cele Goldsmith for editing AMAZING and
      FANTASTIC magazines
    > Special Committee Award:  Donald Tuck for THE HANDBOOK OF SCIENCE
    > Special Committee Award:  Fritz Leiber and Hoffman Electronic Corp. for
      use of science fiction in advertisements
  - Chicon III has suffered the fate of being overshadowed by its more famous 
    predecessor 10 years earlier, but that didn't mean it was any less congenial
    > David Williams, a young fan who was attending his first convention, remembered
      Doc Smith "leaning against a table in the hall outside the main program room,
      ready and willing to engage any fan who came along.  I was struck that such 
      a Big Name was so approachable." [source: DWilliams 24Jul00 email]
* 1963 Washington, D.C. (Discon)
  - George Scithers, chair
    > would later author a CON-COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN'S GUIDE (was this a fanzine
      or a book?) that was published by Dick Eney in 1965
  - Murray Leinster (Will F. Jenkins), GoH
    > Will Jenkins wanders hotel looking for party; didn't realize he'd be 
      welcome at any party and fans did not want to impose on his time
  - 600 in attendance
  - Statler-Hilton Hotel
    > several other conventions were there at same time, including an
      insurance salesmen's convention, a fraternity convention, and a reunion
      of U.S. Army veterans from the 315th Infantry, 1st Batallion
      -- most of the noise complaints in the hotel were caused by the
         fraternity, not the sf fans
  - Opening Ceremony featured sword duel and wizards incantation
  - costume ball event
    > winners included Bruce Pelz, Dian Girard & Ted Johnstone in a recreation
      of Leiber's "Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser"; Jon & Joni Stopa as an incubus
      and succubus; and Larry Kafka as Conan
  - programming
    > there was a special auction to benefit the convention, with artwork and
      manuscripts up for sale; Frazetta covers could be had for less than $100
      -- Mike Resnick came away with a B&W Virgil Finlay drawing for $2.00 and
         an autographed Ted Sturgeon manuscript for $3.00 [source: Resnick
         article in MIMOSA 25]
  - Hugo Awards
    > presented at banquet luncheon on Sunday afternoon
      -- featured Isaac Asimov "in his own juice"
    > Isaac Asimov was toastmaster for event
      -- did a schtick for each award, a long, loud bitter lament that *he*
         had never won a Hugo, wasn't nominated this year, nobody deserved one
         more than he did.  At beginning of ceremony, said he "hoped everyone
         picking up a Hugo would trip coming up the stairs and break his neck"
    > Novel:  THE MAN IN THE HIGH CASTLE by Philip K. Dick
    > Short Fiction:  "The Dragon Masters" by Jack Vance
    > Professional Magazine:  FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION
      -- award accepted by Asimov, for absent Avram Davidson
         >> was surprised when normally shy Ruth Berman called from the floor
            if he was going to break his neck for everyone
    > Amateur Magazine:  XERO (ed. Richard & Pat Lupoff)
    > Professional Artist:  Roy G. Krenkel
    > Special Hugo:  P. Schuyler Miller for Book Reviews in ANALOG
    > Special Hugo:  Isaac Asimov for science articles in FANTASY AND SCIENCE
      FICTION (for putting the science in science fiction)
      -- Asimov turned to chairman George Scithers to shout, "Oh hell, you've
         blown the whole bit!"
    > There was also a Dramatic Presentation Hugo category, but the fans voted
      "No Award" the winner
  - Special Awards Session
    > presented Sunday evening
    > Forry Ackerman announced Big Heart Award
    > inaugural First Fandom Hall of Fame Award
      -- presented to Doc Smith, to grand ovation
  - site selection
    > Oakland won, uncontested
    > Ben Stark had sold 221 memberships by the time Discon ended on Monday,
      many at a huge all-night party that was jam-packed with fans
* 1964 Oakland (Pacificon II)  (Sept. 4-7, 1964)
  - suffered the sad fate of being completely overshadowed by a controversy
    that nearly tore fandom apart, which had occurred before the convention
    was even held
  - The Breendoggle (a.k.a. The Boondoggle)
    > Walter Breen accused of child molestation prior to convention
      -- (mini-bio of Breen here to provide background)
      -- earlier in 1960s, had assumed publication of Carr & Ellik's FANAC
         after they had tired of it
    > Breen banned from attending the convention by the con committee
      -- (summary of what Breen had allegedly done)
      -- banning was done at the advice of the con's legal advisor
      -- felt they had a legal as well as moral obligation to prevent him
         from attending
         >> "The Pacificon II Committee has cancelled Walter Breen's
            membership in the Pacificon II, not because of his morals, but
            because, knowing his general reputation, we are legally liable if
            his actions damage anyone at the convention.  We are not liable
            for the usual fannish peccadillos and misdemeanors or even for
            most crimes.  We have not considered this action with any other
            member or potential member.  We do not consider any fan's morals
            to be committee business or any fan's actions to be committee
            business unless they affect the welfare of the convention, its
            members or the committee."
    > Bill Donaho, perhaps the most vocal member of the Pacificon committee,
      set the stage for the what was to follow, in a letter to Tom Perry which
      was printed in QUARK #7: "Yes, lines are going to be drawn very firmly
      on this situation.  There is no necessity for anyone taking sides who
      doesn't want to do so.  However, many people will take sides --
      violently. I also expect that some fans will leave fandom because of
      this."  Donaho went on to say that in his opinion, this was more than
      just the committee vs. Breen: "It's going to go into `What should fandom
      be like?'"
    > fandom was divided over the Breen affair. Some thought expulsion was
      essentially the act of a kangaroo court; others stood firmly behind the
      committee's actions
      -- John Boardman attempted to get Donaho expelled from The Cult
         >> claimed that the worldcon committee had no authority to "try"
            Breen, and their actions amounted to character assassination
      -- 14 members of FAPA had blackballed Breen's membership application,
         only to have blackball overturned by 41 other FAPA members in a 
         special, unprecedented vote
      -- a Breen Defense Fund was set up
         >> Bob Lichtman (others?) donated material to be auctioned for it
      -- 3rd progress report (May 1964) carried advertisement on back cover:
         "We Support the Pacificon Committee's RIGHT to limit membership for
         >> signed by many well-known fans of the time, including worldcon
            committee members
            --- included (who?)
      -- Don and Maggie Thompson resigned from the Cleveland 1966 bid
         committee over a disagreement with chairman Ben Jason over the Breen
      -- special fanzines were published
         >> THE LOYAL OPPOSITION, a symposium defending Breen
            --- (contents?)
         >> THE REPORT, from the Pacificon committee
            --- (contents?)
      -- Ron Ellik was one of the seemingly few fans who took a more
         dispassionate view of the matter, as he wrote in the 35th issue of
         his newszine STARSPINKLE: "I've tried to clarify facts through
         brevity, but by no means am I trying to appear neutral.  Even now I
         don't wish to open STARSPINKLE to debate but I consider that: Breen
         was legally and deservedly stamped 'NG' by the committee; Donaho most
         deplorably mixed a personal attack with this; and a convention with
         or without Breen will be neither more nor less enjoyable to me.  The
         current muck stirred by Breen's defenders, none of whom deny his
         sexual interest in children, is more than annoying; au contraire, the
         campaign to blackball him from FAPA has convinced me that FAPA needs
         to get rid of its present blackball system, to prevent such a use. 
         I'm not neutral, and I'm not fence-sitting: I'm strongly biased
         against Breen as a fan, and in many respects I'm on *both* sides of
         the fence."
    > the crusade against Breen eventually expanded to the point where Bill
      Donaho made the statement that Breen should not just banned from
      attending the Pacificon, he should be "surgically removed from fandom"
      for the good of all ((note: want exact quote on this one, and it's
      -- this caused a response that perhaps it should be Donaho who should be
         `surgically removed' ((note: want better info on this: who said it?
          where was it said?))
      -- across the Atlantic, Walt Willis, his fan activity on the wane,
         observed the situation with great sadness
         >> the front cover of the 7th issue of Tom Perry's fanzine QUARK
            featured a letter to fandom from Walt: "EMERGENCY!  Multiple
            surgery is now being performed on Fandom, without anesthetics.  
            The extent to which any part of the operation is justified is not
            a question on which I can offer any special insight.  What I can
            see clearly from here is that there is too much blood.  I think
            the patient's life is in danger.  As one who has known and loved
            the patient for 16 years, I appeal to everyone for less cutting
            and more healing.  Fandom is bleeding to death before our eyes. 
            The ironic thing is that the operation is showing how healthy it
            was.  If it weren't healthy it wouldn't bleed so much.  Virtually
            everyone embroiled is acting from altruistic motives, concerned
            solely with what they regard as the good of fandom or loyalty to
            friends or justice.  All I ask is that each of them recognize the
            motives of others as clearly as their own.  Fandom is friendship. 
            If we can't argue as friends, it will die at our own hands."
    > fall-out was that much bitterness remained in fandom afterwards
      -- some U.S. fanzines folded (which ones?)
    > in the aftermath, it turned out that no lawsuits were ever filed against
      Breen, and no charges brought against him by any of his detractors
      -- Breen, later in his life, was in fact twice convicted of pedophilia,
         and died of cancer in 1993 while awaiting trial on yet another charge
      -- almost lost in the midst of the fracas, Breen and Marion Zimmer
         Bradley got married
  - Ben Stark and Al haLevy, co-chairs
  - Leigh Brackett and Edmond Hamilton, Pro GoHs
  - Forrest J Ackerman, Fan GoH
    > speech at Awards banquet was characterized as well-executed and
      dignified without ponderous solemnity
  - 523 in attendance, with total membership about 860
  - Hotel Leamington
    > previously the site of the 1956 and 1961 Westercons
  - Programming and other events
    > convention actually got underway Thursday evening with informal parties
      for early arrivals
    > first official programming was Friday morning, with introduction of pro
      attendees by Tony Boucher and well-known fans by Ron Ellik
    > con had barely gotten underway when it was announced that three
      paintings had been stolen from Bjo's Project Art Show
      -- artwork by Barr, Prosser, and a Japanese entry
      -- were never recovered
    > John Brunner appeared at convention
      -- substituted for Doc Smith in panel "How to Write a Story Around
         an Idea"
         >> Smith had previously recovered from eye cataracts surgery, only to
            be diagnosed with lung cancer and have lung surgically removed not
            long before the convention
    > appearance by Dr. Josef Nesvedba of Czechoslovakia
      -- had written book, Vampires Ltd.: Stories of Science and Fantasy
      -- book was being marketed at convention by Bill Donaho, $7.50 each
    > Harlan Ellison gave a talk on "Adapting Science Fiction to the Visual
      Arts", on writing for TV and the movies
      -- Ellison referred to his speech as "My Two Years in Clown Town"
      -- included segments of an OUTER LIMITS episode for which a story of his
         ("Soldier") was adapted
    > fan panel included Dick Lupoff, Earl Kemp, Wally Weber, Arthur Thomson,
      Dave Van Arnam, George Scithers, and Ron Ellik
    > masquerade winners included Don Glut as Captain America, which won one
      of the Judges Choice awards
      -- other winners were Earl Kemp, Blake Maxam, Jon & Joni Stopa, and Dian
         (Girard) Pelz
  - Hugo Awards Banquet
    > the food was worse than usual, even for a convention banquet
      -- everything was luke-warm
      -- main course consisted of chopped beef in bad gravy that masqueraded
         as beef stroganoff
    > Big Heart Award went to Bjo, who just before the convention ceased being
      eligible for the Big Tummy Award, by giving birth to a daughter
    > Novel:  WAY STATION by Clifford Simak
    > Short Fiction:  "No Truce With Kings" by Poul Anderson
    > Professional Magazine:  ANALOG
    > Professional Artist:  Ed Emshwiller
    > SF Book Publisher:  Ace Books
    > Amateur Magazine:  AMRA (ed. George Scithers)
    > earlier, the committee had withheld a Best Dramatic Presentation
      category because too few votes had been received for any nominee, and
      many nominators had nominated "No Award"
  - almost lost in the tumult was another controversial topic, the proposed
    site for the 1966 Worldcon, even though site selection was still a year
    > Dave Kyle, Jay Kay Klein, and Dick Wilson pushed a bid for Syracuse (New
      York), even though the site for that year's worldcon was supposed to be
      in the midwest, assuming that London won its uncontested bid for the
      1965 worldcon
    > Syracuse bid wanted a vote taken to set aside the Rotation plan
    > as expected, London did win its uncontested bid for the 1965 Worldcon
  - convention made sufficient money to be able to distribute $1,300 to
    various causes, including TAFF, the 1965 Westercon, and the 1965 and 1966
* 1965 London (Loncon II) (Aug. 27-30, 1965)
  - Ella Parker, chair
  - Brian W. Aldiss, GoH
  - 350 in attendance
    > there was a traditional gathering of Britfans at the Globe the night
      before convention opened, the totals swelled to about 70 because of
      the upcoming convention
    > last convention appearances for Willis and Chuck Harris in more than a
  - Mount Royal Hotel
    > located on Oxford Street, short distance from Hyde Park
  - Programme
    > the convention began at 8pm on Friday, Aug. 27, when Ella called things 
      order, and with assistance, introduced some of the notables from
      Britain, North America, and Germany
    > immediately following, Harry Harrison gave a speech "SF-The Salvation of
      the Modern Novel" that set forth the notion that science fiction was now
      the only route open for writing about the modern world, as science was
      the main feature of the modern world that distinguished it from previous
    > Forry Ackerman was attending his 21st Worldcon, and he gave a talk about
      some of those older eras, at least the older fan eras of the 30s, 40s,
      and 50s
    > there was a panel "All Things to All Fen" that discussed, of all things,
      fandom -- what it meant to fans
      -- panelists were Charles Platt, Beryl Henley, Dave Busby, Doreen
         Parker, Irene Boothroyd
      -- their conclusion seemed to be that fanzines were the single most
         important feature of fandom
    > the worldcon attempted to live up to its "world" description with an
      international event about "SF in Europe"
      -- panelists were from Germany, Austria, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia
      -- the conclusion seemed to be that SF in Europe was was actually
         stagnated, with most material there being translated from English
    > John Brunner gave a speech titled "How to Get High Without Goint Into
      Orbit", which was not about recreational psychodelic substances, instead
      being a sharp analysis of some of the elements of writing common to both
      science fiction and mainstream fiction
    > Ted White's speech "How to Plot Your Way Out of a Paper Bag" took dead
      aim at the New Wave writers, denouncing much of that kind of science
      fiction as being written by reactionaries who weren't able to construct
      a believable plot
      -- he even dared to claim that much of this bad fiction was appearing in
         the pages of NEW WORLDS, which undoubtedly made him extremely popular
         with NEW WORLDS's editor, Michael Moorcock
    > John W. Campbell, Jr. was also in attendance, and was featured in a
      panel/debate titled "The Man on a White Horse"
      -- Dick Eney described the event by saying that the Britfans "had not
         been exposed to Campbell for several years, and were somewhat
         croggled by his victory-at-all-costs style of debate"
      -- Campbell had taken the position defending the desirability of
         treating underdeveloped countries like sawdust, but made a strategic
         error of citing Britain's Firm Imposition of Righteous Ways in
         Nigeria as an example of the beneficial effects of such a policy
         >> it was like stirring a hornet"s nest; a verbal skirmish of high
            proportions followed
         >> eventually a truce was declared as time ran out, and the whole
            thing was declared a standoff, to be renewed at some later date
      -- however, Britfans present couldn't know that this was to be the last
         appearance by John Campbell at a British convention
    > there was a trans-Atlantic SF quiz
      -- U.S. lost to Rest of World, score: 26 - 20
    > the Delta Group of fan filmmakers showed their latest production, CASTLE
      OF TERRORS, which was described as a "chuckleworthy farce" that was a
      hit with the viewers
      -- later in the convention they topped that with an even better
         production, a parody of Harry Harrison's DEATHWORLD that kept fans
         roaring with laughter
  - Hugo Awards presented at the Sunday banquet
    > E.E. Evans Big Heart Award went to Walter Ernsting of Germany
    > Novel:  THE WANDERER by Fritz Leiber
    > Short Story:  "Soldier, Ask Not" by Gordon R. Dickson
    > Magazine:  ANALOG
    > Artist:  John Schoenherr
    > Publisher:  Ballantine
    > Fanzine:  YANDRO (ed. Robert and Juanita Coulson)
    > Special Drama:  DR. STRANGELOVE
  - Business Meeting
    > preferential ballot proposed and agreed on for deciding Hugo winners
  - Site Selection
    > Cleveland selected
    > Moskowitz visited editor friend instead of going to business meeting
      -- his vote (and a couple of friends, who also didn't stay) would
         have made difference for Syracuse, where SaM would have been GoH
      -- Dave Kyle had submitted an out-of-rotation bid for Syracuse, which
         was technically legal because, since the Worldcon was in London, any
         U.S. bid was a "foreign" bid as the rules then in place were
         interpreted, and foreign bids could be proposed any time
         >> many people felt Kyle's bid was mainly intended as an attempt to
            prevent the Fanoclasts from succeeding in their 1967 bid for New
            York City, as it would have disrupted the zone rotation
            --- Kyle, who chaired the 1956 NyCon, had taken umbrage to
                Fanoclast claims that their convention would not be "a fiasco,
                like 1956"
      -- it was expected there would be some fireworks between the two bids.
         but it never came to that
         >> at the site selection event, Kyle made an impassioned challenge
            that his bid be recognized
         >> to most people's surprise, Cleveland bid chairman Ben Jason then
            stated that he had no problem with the Syracuse bid being declared
            as valid
         >> the vote was almost an anticlimax, with Cleveland winning, 60-49
  - Other happenings
    > Order of St. Fantony was present in force, and held an induction
      -- Initiated were Tom Schluck, Dick Eney, Ethel Lindsay, Tony Walsh,
         Ted Carnell, Ken Cheslin, Harry Nadler, Phil Rogers, and Ken Bulmer
* 1966 Cleveland (Tricon)
  - Ben Jason, chair
  - Howard DeVore, Lou Tabakow associate chairmen
    > tripartate bid: Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit (as described in an 
      earlier chapter)
  - L. Sprague de Camp, GoH
    > gave an amusing anecdotal speech at the Hugo Awards banquet
  - Isaac Asimov was Toastmaster
  - 850 in attendance
  - Sheraton-Cleveland Hotel
    > hotel also hosting another convention at same time (war veterans)
      -- stuck elevator story (Fred Pohl): fans calm while war vets were
      -- once again the worldcon had to share the hotel with another group; this
         time it was, from all appearances, a convention of bagpipers, who
         became annoying by their late night music parades up and down hotel
         corridors past rooms where some fans were trying to sleep [source:
         Resnick article in MIMOSA 23]
         >> Mike Resnick later remembered that "it was the first, and probably only,
            time in worldcon history when the fans complained to the hotel that the 
            mundanes were making too much noise."
  - start of Baby Fandom
    > (need info on this)
  - Program
    > John Brunner gave speech on "Interference on My Wavelength"
    > panel on special fandoms and their relation to SF fandom did not come to
      any conclusions, because time ran out just as the discussion was just
      starting to become interesting
  - Other happenings
    > Order of St. Fantony holds first induction in U.S.
      -- Initiated were Fritz Leiber (in absentia, represented by John
         Trimble) and Bjo Trimble
    > bid parties were like mob scenes
    > costume ball winners included Karen Anderson, (others)
    > two episodes of Star Trek shown, to mostly rave reviews by fans
      -- after the screening of the episode titled "The Cage", fans reacted by 
         giving a standing ovation [source: Scrivner email 18Apr96]
      -- however, the second TV show that premiered, THE TIME TUNNEL, didn't
         fare as well: a young Cleveland-area fan, Jerry Kaufman (at his first
         convention), perhaps spoke for many when he commented that "you have
         no idea how funny it was to see 600 stf-fans mocking that thing in
         front of a hopeful studio agent."
      -- another well-accepted premiere was a motion picture, FANTASTIC VOYAGE, 
         but after its premiere, Isaac Asimov, who wrote the novelization and 
         was the film's advisor, apologized to the fans who saw it [source: 
         Scrivner 18Apr96 email]
    > Tricon also hosted the first of the famous Asimov/Ellison mock insult contests
      -- fans who were keeping score generally considered that Asimov was winning 
         when Ellison veered off into a lengthy description of a fistfight he had
         with a couple of Frank Sinatra's bodyguards [source: Resnick article in
         MIMOSA 23]
  - Hugo Awards banquet
    > 401 Hugo ballots received, the best turnout ever to that point
    > Asimov was presenter for all but last Hugo
    > both E.E. Evans Memorial (Big Heart) Award and First Fandom Hall of
      Fame Awards were presented to the late Dr. David H. Keller, M.D.
    > Novel:  ...AND CALL ME CONRAD by Roger Zelazny; DUNE by Frank Herbert
    > Short Fiction:  "'Repent Harlequin!' Said the Ticktockman" by Harlan
      -- Harlan presented with bag of black jellybeans with his Hugo
      -- it was Ellison's first Hugo Award
    > Professional Magazine:  IF
    > Professional Artist:  Frank Frazetta
    > Amateur magazine:  ERB-DOM (ed. Camille Cazedessus, Jr.)
      -- Caz had taken copied the Hugo Ballot and included it in the mailing
         of the last issue of ERB-DOM before the voting deadline; his mailing
         list was hundreds of people, many of whom were also worldcon members,
         and that had provided him a leg up on the competition, which was
         enough to win easily [source: Resnick article in MIMOSA 23]
    > Best All-Time Series:  the "Foundation" series by Isaac Asimov
      -- presented by Ellison
      -- Tricon committee had previously stated that even though LotR was 
         eligible in the 'Novel' category, they were restricting it to the
         'Series' category to make room for other Best Novel nominees
    > special plaques also given out to STAR TREK and the film FANTASTIC
      -- publicity man for the TV series TIME TUNNEL tried to send out a
         press release stating that the show was also getting an award from
         the convention
         >> no such award was made
  - Business meeting
    > John Trimble appointed to Hugo study committee
      -- in 1967 published a fanzine titled HUGO REPORT #1 which contained an
         article by Ted White supporting the creation of an award to be known
         as the "Pong", which would replace the Fanzine Hugo
         >> this would soon be the cause of much uproar in fandom
    > standard word lengths adopted for defining fiction Hugo categories
      -- short story defined as less than 10,000 words; novelette between
         10,000 and 35,000 words; novel over 35,000 words
      -- provision made for allowing concom to shift story into a "more 
         appropriate" category if word count was within 5,000 words of the
         other category's limit
      -- if a story published in more than one version (e.g., shorter work and
         an expanded novel version), author allowed to designate which
         version eligible for Hugo competition
      -- also, novels serialized would be eligible for the year in which the
         final installment appeared, as defined by the magazine's cover date
    > Site Selection
      -- four bids (New York, Boston, Baltimore, Syracuse)
         >> Dave Kyle once again headed a Syracuse bid, in hopes of derailing
            the Fanoclast New York City bid
      -- this time, the Fanoclasts had a secret weapon: Harlan Ellison, who
         orated for half an hour about the wonders of New York at the site
         selection meeting
      -- in the end, New York won, beating Syracuse on final ballot 250-201
  - convention had a lasting effect on many fans, and not just from the debut 
    of STAR TREK
    > four of the Canadian fans who were there, Mike Glicksohn, John Mansfield, 
      (who were other 2?), after returning home, founded the Ontario Science 
      Fiction Club [source: Scrivner 18Apr96 email]
* 1967 New York (Nycon 3)
  - Ted White and Dave Van Arnam, co-chairs
  - Lester del Rey, Pro GoH
  - Bob Tucker, Fan GoH
  - 1500 in attendance
    > largest worldcon by far, to date
    > one of the attendees, making an infrequent convention appearance, was
      Harry Warner, Jr.
    > another attendee startled older fans with his nametag, 'Carl Brandon,
      Jr.' which harkened back to the famous hoax fan of a decade earlier; it
      was really John-Henri Holmberg from Sweden, at his first worldcon
  - Statler-Hilton Hotel
    > in retrospect, it was not a very good choice for the convention
      -- elevator service was extremely slow, with only one elevator in
         operation after 10pm, and when fans took to the staircases instead
         they found the stairwells unlit and the stairs littered with shards
         of broken bottles
    > the hotel restaurant became infamous for its bad food and worse service
      -- the Sunday evening of the convention, a dinner party of sixteen
         including Isaac Asimov, Sprague de Camp, Harlan Ellison, Lester &
         Evelyn del Rey, Bob Silverberg, Fred Pohl and Jay Kay Klein decided
         to save some time and eat at the hotel's Haymarket Restaurant instead
         of going outside for dinner
         >> upon entering the restaurant, del Rey looked around, noted the
            restaurant's opulent appearance, and remarked that "Anything this
            fancy can't be very good", words that would turn out to be
      -- the meal actually started quite well, with salads appearing soon
         after the orders were taken, however Lester del Rey's order for
         an avacado salad had been ignored, as had Evelyn's order for a Caesar
         salad; they both received a chef salad instead
         >> a waiter was politely requested remedy the situation, to no avail
      -- meanwhile, time was passing, a lot of time; after an hour and a
         quarter, even dinner conversation had faded and many of the stronger
         willed people at the table, especially del Rey, were starting to get
         a bit surly, especially when it appeared that the waiters all had
         better things to do than provide any further service to the table
      -- Fred Pohl summoned the maitre d', who brought with him a bevy of
         waiters; to Jay Kay Klein it seemed that "they were very superior
         about the whole thing.  Also hostile.  You'd think we were the
      -- del Rey had seen enough at that point, and cornered a waiter,
         politely requested that the proper salads be served; when told by the
         waiter that was not possible, Lester requested, a bit less politely,
         that the unwanted salads be removed
         >> when told that, too, could not be done, del Rey decided to take
            his business elsewhere and stalked out, but not before removing
            the salads by himself: he slung them down the aisle of the
            restaurant, leaving a trail of lettuce for fifteen feet
      -- but that wasn't the end of it; when the food did finally appear it
         was so unappetizing that no one wanted to eat it, and Fred Pohl
         nearly came to blows with the maitre d' when the group was charged
         for items not served (including the del Rey's dinners)
         >> when Harlan Ellison's rubbery Yorkshire pudding appeared, it was
            so cold that he bent a fork on it while trying to determine if it
            was edible; after his complaint was ignored, he decided to get the
            restaurant's attention the same way del Rey did, and the meal went
            sailing across the restaurant, hitting a wall.  It stuck
      -- when news of the meal expedition got out, it brought further fan
         scorn; Judy-Lynn Benjamin remarked that "the Hilton waiters are
         Hilton elevator operator rejects"
    > there were other problems with the Statler Hilton; Joe Haldeman reported
      of "foul-mouthed hotel telephone operators, surly sales people, and
      belligerent house detectives"
    > and perhaps most galling of all, the worldcon had to share the hotel with
      another convention being staged by the Scientologists [source: Resnick 
      article in MIMOSA 24]
      -- Mike Resnick remembered that "it was instant competition. I don't know 
         who converted more of which to what, but it kept up for the entire
  - Attempt to redefine the fanzine Hugo as "Pong" failed
    > first Progress Report, which appeared in January 1967, contained
      nomination ballot for the Hugos and the Pongs
      -- Pongs were defined as Fan Achievement Awards, for Best Fan Writer,
         Best Fan Artist, and Best Fanzine
         >> name of award taken from 'Hoy Ping Pong', one of Bob Tucker's 
            fan pseudonyms
      -- there was no corresponding Hugo for Best Fanzine listed on the ballot
      -- immediate outcry appeared in fanzines
         >> Bruce Pelz in RATATOSK was a leading critic of the idea
         >> objections also voiced by Mallardi and Bowers in DOUBLE BILL, 
            Tom Reamy in TRUMPET, Felice Rolfe in NIEKAS, Pete Weston in
         >> only a notable few fans (Buck Coulson and Leland Sapiro, among
            them) supported the idea
            --- Coulson said he "wouldn't mind winning a Pong"
      -- Ted White later explained his reasoning behind the Pongs: "There were
         a number of pro Hugos, but only one fan Hugo. I felt there should be
         greater parity.  I also wanted to honor the fannisness of fanactivity
         by renaming the fan awards after the first fannish fan, Bob Tucker,
         calling them Pongs."
      -- eventually, the sustained outcry caused White to cancel the Pong
         Awards, renaming them as Fan Hugos instead
         >> at the business meeting, the new Fan Writer and Fan Artist awards
            were ratified as 'Hugos', the name 'Pongs' being relegated to a
            footnote in worldcon history
  - program was a bit unusual, in that two-person 'dialogues' took the place
    of traditional discussion panels
    > there were some interesting ones concerning sf magazines
      -- Ellison and Ted Sturgeon debated the merits of New Wave science
         fiction; Ellison took the position that it was avant guard and to be
         encouraged, while Sturgeon seemed to defend a 'rear guard' definition
         of science fiction that emphasized the traditional aspects of science
         and space travel with its innate sense of wonder
      -- Norman Spinrad and Fred Pohl talked about the state of the market for
         short science fiction; Spinrad wanted to see more magazines which
         would create a larger market for short fiction, but Pohl replied that
         there weren't that many good stories being submitted -- he was lucky
         to find one good one per week, and any extra pages would be "filled
         with even lower quality garbage"
  - masquerade
    > a dozen different Mr. Spocks, all lined up together on the stage
      -- each seemed somewhat surprised at all the others being present
    > Lynne Aronson, a hopeful writer at the time (and who later founded the 
      Chicago regional convention Windycon), appeared as a rejection slip, covered
      with all the rejection slips she had received [source: Resnick article in
      MIMOSA 24]
    > Isaac Asimov put a pipe in his mouth and claimed to be Harlan Ellison
    > another popular costume was "Harlan Ellison" -- there were several of
      those, each sporting dark glasses, cowboy boots, and a pipe
      -- Ellison himself took the stage during a pause in the program,
         parading across while announcing that he was in disguise as Isaac
         Asimov, maintaining the Asimov 'dirty old man' persona by pinching
         some of the women on the stage 
  - Hugo Awards
    > banquet was on Monday afternoon, a departure from tradition
      -- did not meet widespread approval because many fans had to leave by
         that afternoon to go home in order to be at work the next day
      -- food problems continued; the meal, overpriced at $5.50, was described
         by Harlan Ellison as "rubber chicken and plastic peas"
         >> Lester del Rey was observed being served soup instead of salad,
    > Ellison was banquet toastmaster, and he used the opportunity to take a
      few more shots at the hotel, asking that fans not blame the convention
      committee for the situation: "It's obvious they were duped."
      -- this resulted in the committee being referred to by some of the
         unhappier attendees as "a bunch of dupes", not quite what Harlan had
    > Tucker's fan guest of honor speech was, as expected, quite humorous
      -- talked about his friend, Bob Bloch, with mock insults, part of a
         running gag battle that had been going on for decades
      -- gave a gold-speckled ping-pong paddle 'trophy' to Ted White; the
         inscription read "To Ted, for keeping fans interested"
    > next, Forry Ackerman presented the E. E. Evans Big Heart Award to
      Tennessee fan Janie Lamb, which was accepted by Lee Hoffman
      -- Janie had been active in NFFF, and was a leading Southern fan
    > Sam Moskowitz took the stage to present the First Fandom Hall of Fame
      -- Harlan yelled down that he had three minutes, to which Sam replied
         that he needed more than that; there followed a short round of
         negotiations back and forth, and Sam was allowed ten minutes
      -- he needed the time, as it turned out; he used much of the ten minutes
         telling a long-winded joke, and by the time his commemoration of the
         honoree, Ed Hamilton, had wound down, many of the fans had taken the
         opportunity for a restroom break
      -- Sam wasn't yet finished, however; he then proceeded to read the
         inscription on the award, which itself went on and on
         >> Ellison wanted to know how Sam had gotten so many words on the
            trophy, and Sam explained that he "had received a special rate"
      -- the award was finally accepted for Hamilton by Jack Williamson;
         Hamilton had actually been at the convention, but had to leave before
         the Monday banquet; it was not the best moment for First Fandom, and
         some fans thought he might have been lucky to miss it all
    > finally it was time for Lester del Rey's Guest of Honor Speech
      -- after the Moskowitz marathon, everyone present steeled themselves for
         another, but del Rey surprised everyone with a very short and concise
         speech, denouncing people he considered phonies in the field of
         science fiction writing and criticism, perhaps a shot at the New Wave
         movement: "I'm interested in good stories. I'm sick of artiness
         masquerading as art," and added that he was "sick and tired of seeing
         science fiction dragged down into the mainstream."  This was greeted
         with much applause
    > Hugo Awards themselves had a different appearance this year; instead of 
      metal rockets, they were made from clear plexiglass [source: TWhite 28Dec98 
      -- the committee was convinced to do this by George Scithers, with the
         idea that it would be the way of the future
      -- the rockets were glued to wooden bases, but the glue did not always hold
         them securely
      -- chairman Ted White later thought that perhaps some thought should have
         been given to finding a way to somehow illuminate the rockets through 
         the wooden bases "which would have made them seem to glow with an inner 
         light.  But the technology wasn't cheap enough (or good enough) in 1967."
    > Novel:  THE MOON IS A HARSH MISTRESS by Robert A. Heinlein
    > Novelette:  "The Last Castle" by Jack Vance
    > Short Story:  "Neutron Star" by Larry Niven
      -- Niven's story won by only a handful of votes, as it turned out; Ted White
         later wrote that the Committee rather favored the Bob Shaw story "Light
         of Other Days" that was another of the nominees, but had missed a chance
         to influence the vote: "We convened the entire committee (six or eight of 
         us) to count the ballots, and foolishly cast our own first."  It was a
         thinly-veiled secret that some worldcon convention committees during the 
         1950s and 1960s had withheld their ballots until after all the others had
         been counted, so as to create or resolve a tie, or to boost one of the
         conventions guests or a local favorite nominee [source: TWhite 28Dec98 
    > Professional Magazine:  IF
    > Professional Artist:  Jack Gaughan
    > Dramatic Presentation:  "The Menagerie" episode of STAR TREK
      -- chairman Ted White later wrote that Gene Roddenberry had lobbied the 
         Nycon committee to have all movie nominees remobved from the ballot, 
         or moved to some separate category, so that the entire category could 
         be STAR TREK episodes, and that "This did not improve out opinion of 
         the man." [source: TWhite 28Dec98 email]
    > Fanzine:  NIEKAS (ed. Ed Meskys and Felice Rolfe)
    > Fan Artist:  Jack Gaughan
    > Fan Writer:  Alexei Panshin
    > Special Committee Award:  CBS Television for THE 21ST CENTURY
  - site selection
    > Berkeley easily won over Los Angeles, possibly thanks to Harlan Ellison,
      who had spoken in behalf of the Berkeley bid
      -- Ellison's speech countered a preceding speech by Gene Roddenberry,
         who had supported the L.A. bid and hinted at what might be possible
         at a worldcon that had the cooperation of STAR TREK and the L.A.
         aerospace industries
      -- Ellison drew on the attendees sentiment for a convention that would
         not have to share hotels with non-SF people, and said that at the
         Baycon the hotels were the right size so that there would be *no*
         non-SF people registered; there would be nobody there but "weirdo
         freaks like yourselves."  His words were prophetic.
* 1968 Oakland/Berkeley (Baycon)
  - Bill Donaho, Alva Rogers, Ben Stark, co-chairs
  - Philip Jose' Farmer, Pro GoH
    > gave speech at banquet that went on and on and on...
      -- critical of John Campbell, who was in audience
  - Walt Daugherty, Fan GoH
  - Takumi Shibano from Japan was announced as a Special Guest
  - 1430 in attendance
  - Hotel Claremont
    > no A/C in hotel, convention in middle of very bad heat wave
    > hotel buffet (opposite the banquet) gave people food poisoning
  - Riots in streets protesting the war
    > happened in Jack London Square, between Claremont Hotel and overflow
    > National Guard called out to protect SF fans
  - first convention to do all-night movies
    > sponsored by the St. Louis bid committee
    > mostly the same movie; Jack Chalker had room above movie room, memorizes
  - program and other things that happened
    > SCA demo
      -- black spiders fell from trees
      -- wasp nest overturned, wasps entered hotel
      -- apart from those mishaps, the SCA gained quite a bit of visible in
         the sf community
         >> they staged a Medieval Fashion Show of all types of garb,
            including a 60-pound suit of chain mail
         >> the tournament part of the demonstration featured Randy Garrett
            and Poul Anderson unsuccessfully defending a challenge against the
            Clan Campbell (as in John W.) from Paul Zimmer (brother of Marion
            Zimmer Bradley) and a compatriot
         >> following the combat, there was an evening of revel, including
            medieval food, music, and dance
    > Knights of St. Fantony initiated Forry Ackerman into their order
    > committee had claimed in a progress report that they were going to try
      Joan Baez, but when the time came to ask her, they had second thoughts
      -- instead, there were three otherwise obscure rock music groups booked,
         one going by a name appropriate for the occasion: "H. P. Lovecraft"
    > there was a fan production at the convention: a performance of "H.M.S.
      Trek-a-Star", what a STAR TREK episode might have been if it had been
      scripted by Gilbert & Sullivan
    > the committee arranged for a light show to accompany readings by Ellison
      and Leiber
    > art show awards were dominated by Tim Kirk, George Barr, Cathy Hill, and
      Gordon Monson, who between them won 15 of the 20 prizes
    > some of the program was taped, and broadcast a few months later over a
      local radio station, KPFA-FM
  - Hugo Awards
    > the Hugo banquet did not get off to a good start; some fans noticed that 
      the main course, beef stroganoff, was on the hotel restaurant's menu at
      a far cheaper price than what attendees were paying [source: Donoho 1Jan99 
    > Toastmaster was Robert Silverberg, who was so witty he stole the show
      from everybody else on the program
    > before any awards were presented, Farmer gave his speech, then Randall
      and Alison Garrett took the stage to sing a calypso review of Poul
      Anderson's story THREE HEARTS AND THREE LIONS
    > Ellison was presentor of the Hugos, except when Silverberg wouldn't let
      him (the three times Ellison was one of the nominees)
    > Novel:  LORD OF LIGHT by Roger Zelazny
    > Novella:  "Weyr Search" by Anne McCaffrey; "Riders of the Purple Wage"
      by Philip Jose' Farmer (tie)
      -- some fans were surprised when this category appeared on the ballot, as 
         it had not been 'approved' by the worldcon business meeting which set 
         the rules for the Hugo Awards; chairman Bill Donaho later wrote that 
         "we, like most con committees of the time, treated the Rules as 
         guidelines, not laws.  We got some criticism for adding this category,
         but regarded it as being from Breen supporters grabbing any stick to hit 
         us with."  Repercussions from the 1964 worldcon were still in the air!
      -- some fans suspected the tie wasn't exactly the way the voting had resulted, 
         as it seemed a little too convenient that it had involved a story by the
         Guest of Honor.  And they were right; the voting was not precisely a tie.
         Donaho later said that, as votes were counted, "First McCaffrey would be 
         ahead, and then Farmer.  They finished three votes apart.  As Ben, Alva, 
         and I hadn't voted yet, we decided to make it a tie.  I do remember that 
         we never discussed the matter of getting a Hugo for our Guest of Honor, 
         and it never occurred to me that this was a desirable thing to do.  The 
         thing we discussed was the closeness of the race, and what was the fair 
         thing to do." [source: Donoho 1Jan99 email]
    > Novelette:  "Gonna Roll the Bones" by Fritz Leiber
    > Short Story:  "I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream" by Harlan Ellison
      -- proceedings had been enlivened by a $100 bet between Ellison and
         Larry Niven on which of them would win the Short Story award; Niven's
         "The Jigsaw Man" had appeared in Ellison's DANGEROUS VISIONS
    > Dramatic Presentation:  "City on the Edge of Forever" episode of STAR
      TREK (Harlan Ellison script)
      -- the five nominees in the category had all been STAR TREK episodes; 
         the Ellison scripted episode had narrowly won out over one by David
      -- earlier, Ellison's script had also been voted by the Writers Guild
         of America as that year's outstanding script for television dramatic
      -- however, Ellison was disdainful of the episode; he let fans know
         that: "My STAR TREK script that won the Writers Guild of America
         award was the *original* version, not repeat *NOT* the aired,
         emasculated version." (what did he say when it won the Hugo?)
    > Professional Magazine:  IF
      -- award was accepted by Robert Guinn
    > Professional Artist: Jack Gaughan
      -- award accepted by Elsie Wollheim
    > Fanzine:  AMRA (ed. George Scithers)
      -- Scithers was unable to be present, being in Korea on military duty;
         award was accepted by Dick Eney
    > Fan Writer:  Ted White
      -- one of the nominees in this category, Alexei Panshin, was granted his
         request that his name be removed from the final ballot
         >> Panshin had, in 1967, won the Fan Writer Hugo, the very first time
            the category had existed; the reason he declined the nomination
            this time was that "I thought someone else should win the next
            one, and hoped to set a precedent by saying that one was enough."
            His gesture proved to be futile
    > Fan Artist:  George Barr
      -- award accepted by Bjo Trimble
      -- Gaughan had also been nominated in this category, but wrote to the
         convention committee and asked for it to be removed prior to the
         final voting
    > Special Committee Awards:  Harlan Ellison for DANGEROUS VISIONS; Gene
      Roddenberry for STAR TREK
    > the First Fandom Award was presented by Edmond Hamilton to Jack
    > the Big Heart Award, to the elation of all, went to Walt Daugherty, who
      had founded the award and had never expected to receive it
    > The Invisible Little Man Award, presented by the Little Mens club, went
      to J. Francis McComas
    > TM Silverberg did not come away empty-handed; he was presented an
      attache' case by members of the Science Fiction Writers of America in
      recognition of his service to that organization
  - Ginjer Buchanan's convention report "I've Had No Sleep, and I Must Giggle"
    > published in GRANFALLOON
  - Site selection: St. Louis wins over Columbus, Ohio
    > St. Louis had beed identified with newer, modern fandom while Columbus
      had been identified with an older, more political side of fandom
      -- open antipathy between the bids was evident
         >> unfounded (and untrue) rumors circulated that Columbus intended
            to have its own Exclusion Act, banning Ted White from attending
         >> earlier, Columbus supporter Brian Burley had moved to St. Louis
            to keep an eye on St. Louis fandom
      -- Harlan Ellison made nominating speech for St. Louis
      -- after St. Louis had won, ill feelings quickly dissipated
         >> Burley had become likeable during his stay in St. Louis
         >> Columbus chairman Larry Smith and other supporters helped out at
            the St. Louiscon, then returned afterwards for after-con
            celebration party
* 1969 St. Louis (St. Louiscon)
  - Ray & Joyce Fisher, co-chairs
  - Jack Gaughan, Pro GoH
    > first time since very first worldcon an artist was Pro GoH
    > The Jack Gaughan Art Portfolio was distributed to all worldcon members
  - Ted White was the committee's choice for Fan GoH
    > however, three months before the convention, White withdrew in favor of
      the still-unelected TAFF delegate, partly because of his recent
      ascension to the editorship of AMAZING and FANTASTIC magazines
      -- he explained his reasoning was explained in the 28th issue of LOCUS:
         "I appreciate the honor the St. Louiscon committee bestowed on me in
         selecting me as fan GoH -- a very real honor of which I am proud. 
         But 'fan' GoH is a little silly when I suddenly found myself elevated
         to a position among prozine editors -- incongruous, if not
         inappropriate.  And I think the winner of this year's TAFF race will
         have demonstrated a fannish Vote of Confidence which should include
         the fan GoH.  I've discussed this with Ray Fisher, and he agrees.  In
         fact, I would urge future Worldcon committees to continue this
         'tradition' whenever a TAFF candidate is due at their con.  TAFF is
         too important to shrug off as an old-hat institution."
      -- White's appeal, however eloquent, was largely ignored by future
         Worldcon committees, however, and the circumstance was never
         repeated, although the very next year's worldcon, in Germany, did
         repeat the gesture
    > by the time for the convention came around, Eddie Jones had defeated Bob
      Shaw in the TAFF balloting, and also inherited the position of Worldcon
      Fan GoH
  - 1534 in attendance
    > biggest worldcon to date
  - membership fee was $4
  - Chase-Park Plaza hotel
    > was billed as "the biggest and best con hotel west of the Mississippi"
      -- glass enclosed roof lounge overlooking the city was site of the
         convention's Art Show
    > room rates $13 single, $18 double, $35 suites
    > many problems with hotel surfaced during the convention
      -- problems with room reservations
         >> Judge Joe Hensley turned away, even though he had confirmed room
            reservation; called Governor of Missouri who called hotel owner
            --- Hensley got his room, night clerk got fired
      -- competition from non-fan groups for hotel space
         >> previous group (what was it?) had not left when fans arrived
         >> football team tried to get hotel bookings during convention
      -- Ben Bova got into fist fight with an elevator operator
      -- militant house detective wanted to conduct room-to-room search for
         drugs after finding marijuana in one of elevators
         >> threatened to do person-to-person search of all convention
            members while masquerade was going on
         >> chairman Ray Fisher taken into custody by hotel security staff
            when he refused to cooperate
            --- Joe Hensley negotiated a cool-off, owner of hotel told
                security to back off and leave convention alone
    > hotel ran out of many things over the weekend, including beer, bread,
      and milk, which added to fans fury
      -- scheduled beer bust party cancelled due to lack of beer
    > afterwards, fans wrote many letters of complaint to hotel management
      and various professional organizations, including St. Louis Convention
      -- hotel was reprimanded by Convention Bureau
      -- hotel provided proof of minor vandalism by fans (firecracker inside
         a closed ashtray), and photos taken in private rooms and hallways
         showing nudity and sexual activity
      -- Convention bureau called it a stalemate, dropped the investigation
         against the hotel
      -- fans got even afterwards: one fan visited hotel after convention,
         claimed he was an elevator inspector, closed down the elevators
         >> caused disruption (?)
      -- hotel lost several major conventions as a result
      -- hotel's insurance coverage got cancelled (Stew Brownstein has details
         on this)
      -- hotel eventually went into receivership
  - Program
    > Meet the Pros party
      -- held pool-side
      -- convention provided an old-fashioned soda bar
      -- featured an extremely loud callipe and white straw hats for all the
         pros to wear
    > all-night movies each night in the main ballroom, managed by insomniac
      Richard Carlson
  - the masquerade featured one of the best costumes ever at a worldcon, and also
    one of the strangest accidents
    > the costume was "The Bat and the Bitten" by Karen and Astrid Anderson
      -- Karen entered the stage as pale-skinned woman in a flowing black dress;
         when she spread her arms, became a vampire with black wings
      -- her daughter Astrid, dressed in white, was her 'victim', and was 
         transformed into a vampire, complete with wings of her own [source: 
         Resnick 15Dec00 email]
      -- was as much performance art as a costume, and served to elevate the 
         making of masquerade costumes almost into an artform in itself
      -- Mike Resnick later remembered it as "the greatest costume ever done"
         [source: Resnick article in MIMOSA 25]
    > At end of masquerade, all the winners called back on stage
    > Rick Norwood (dressed as Charlie Brown from "Peanuts") fell through screen
      during masquerade
      -- when he stepped back to make room, he stepped off the back of the stage
      -- he tried to grab onto something, grabbed backdrop which was the screen
      -- screen tore, and general hubbub ensued
    > Ray Fisher remarked to Harlan Ellison, "This will be the last straw with
      the hotel."
      -- this occurred not long after Joe Hensley had cooled off the hotel
         staff, when they had tried to have Ray Fisher arrested
    > Ellison told Fisher, "Don't worry, we'll fix it"
      -- immediately ran to stage and called for donations to raise money for
      -- amount collected was in excess of $400
         >> when informing audience of amount collected, Ellison said, "if
            there is any extra money left over, we'll have a beer bust"
            --- party was intended for following night, open to all
         >> also jokingly suggested that since enough money collected, fans
            could come up and complete the destruction of old screen
            --- as fans surged toward the screen, a horrified Ellison quickly
                talked them down
    > Almost immediately, more information started circulating through the
      -- next day was Sunday; so-called "blue laws" prevented sale of alcohol
      -- day after was a holiday (Labor Day); same situation applied
      -- therefore, there could be no party, so extra funds had no immediate
    > Also, word got out that Harlan decided that the extra money should go to
      his current project: the Clarion writers conference
      -- no group decision; Harlan raised the money, he would decide its use
      -- Harlan's decision did not sit well with many people at the convention
      -- Bruce Pelz and others tried to talk Harlan out of it that night
         >> said, "It's the fans' money, and they want to be consulted."
         >> suggested that he make suggestion for this at Business Meeting,
            and it would undoubtedly be ratified
         >> pleas were in vain; Ellison had mind made up
    > At next evening's Hugo Awards banquet, during Ellison's Toastmaster
      remarks, Harlan announced his intention
      -- Harlan's unilateral decision was immediately unpopular with those at
         the banquet; many fans objected strenuously
         >> by one report, someone threw a chair at the stage; other smaller
            missiles (buttered rolls, etc.) also were thrown
         >> Elliott Shorter, right then and there, engaged Ellison in heated
            --- went up on stage to argue
            --- Ellison stood on chair to get in the face of Shorter, who was
                far from short in stature
         >> Lester del Rey also took the stage to protest
      -- Harlan rebutted both del Rey and Shorter, then, as calm again
         prevailed, introduced the Guest of Honor, Jack Gaughan
      -- However, GoH Jack Gaughan was so upset by proceedings, he was
         scarcely able to deliver the speech he had prepared
         >> by one account, he did little more than get to his feet, thank
            everyone, then sit back down again
         >> another account, published in LOCUS, reported that Gaughan's
            speech was short, talking mostly about art and illustration
    > the most ironic thing about the entire fracas was that the hotel staff,
      after all their belligerence toward the convention, was quite nice about
      -- they simply said, "We're insured", and took only $85
    > in the end, the excess money went to a newly-created Worldcon Emergency
      Fund, which was to be administered by Hensley
    > at Business Meeting on Monday (Labor Day), Ellison resigned from Science
      Fiction, and stomped out
  - Business Meeting
    > Two worldcons were awarded: 1970 to Heidelberg and 1971 to Boston
      -- Boston beat a bid from Washington, D.C. by a vote of 169 to 119
      -- the Heidelberg bid won in a voice vote, after a semi-hoax bid for
         Bermuda was withdrawn by Jack Chalker
    > "No Award" became a manditory entry in all categories of final Hugo
      Awards ballot
    > Novelette Hugo was eliminated
      -- was reinstated in 1972 after an impassioned speech by Harlan Ellison
  - Hugo Awards Banquet
    > presented almost as an afterthought at Sunday night banquet
    > Big Heart Award presented by Forry Ackerman to Harry Warner, Jr; award
      accepted by Robert Bloch
    > First Fandom Award presented by Jack Williamson to Murray Leinster;
      award accepted by Judy-Lynn Benjamin
    > a moving eulogy to the recently deceased Willy Ley was given by Lester
      del Rey; a first fandom plaque for his widow was accepted by L. Sprague
      de Camp
    > Bob Bloch presented the Hugo Awards
    > Novel:  STAND ON ZANZIBAR by John Brunner (accepted by Gordon Dickson)
    > Novella:  "Nightwings" by Robert Silverberg
    > Novelette:  "The Sharing of Flesh" by Poul Anderson
    > Short story:  "The Beast that Shouted Love at the Heart of the World"
      by Harlan Ellison
    > Drama:  2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (accepted by Dave Kyle)
    > Professional Magazine:  FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION
    > Professional Artist:  Jack Gaughan
    > Fanzine:  SCIENCE FICTION REVIEW (ed. Richard E. Geis) (accepted by
      Bruce Pelz)
      -- runner up was RIVERSIDE QUARTERLY, to the dismay of its editor,
         Leland Sapiro, who had campaigned heavily for the award
    > Fan Writer: Harry Warner, Jr. (accepted by Bill Evans)
    > Fan Artist:  Vaughn Bode'
    > Special Committee Award: Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins for "The Best
      Moon Landing Ever" (accepted by Hal Clement)

(since this is last chapter, needs some kind of wrap-up here)

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