'South by Southwest, An Antipodean Adventure', 
  Opening Comments by Rich & Nicki
Somewhere over the South Pacific, on the Qantas flight to Melbourne, Australia:

Nicki: "How long have we been traveling?"

Rich (misunderstanding): "About two weeks."

Nicki: "No, not how long are we going to be in Australia; how long have we been on this flight?"

Rich: "Oh! About two weeks."

# # # #

It takes a long, long time, even by air, to travel from North America to Australia. Well, maybe not two weeks, but it sure seems like it. It was the farthest from home either of us had ever been, to the most southerly Worldcon ever. Like many of our trips, this was a voyage of discovery; by the end of the trip, we felt we knew our way around a part of the world that had previously been as remote to us, subjectively, as the surface of Mars.

The trip actually began two years earlier, in San Antonio, at the 1997 Worldcon. It was there that the Los Angeles fan group, SCIFI, won the bid to host the 1999 North American Science Fiction Convention, which was to be held in Anaheim the week before Aussiecon Three, the 1999 Worldcon. NASFiCs don't happen too often, only when the Worldcon is across an ocean from here. We'd only been to one previous NASFiC (the 1979 NorthAmericon in Louisville) and, indeed, had no plans to attend the 1999 one either (Australia and Aussiecon were on our minds even then). But a telephone call from Bruce Pelz a few days before the 1997 LoneStarCon changed all that; he informed us that SCIFI wanted us to be their Fan Guests if they won their bid. It was a surprise; we haven't attended all that many conventions in the past few years, and there are certainly many other fans who are deserving of the honor. Nevertheless, it didn't take us long to accept. The bigger challenge was to figure out how we were going to pack the NASFiC, Aussiecon Three, and other parts of Australia all into one trip.

With the 1999 NASFiC, ConuCopia, we've now been fan guests five times. At 2,000+ attendees, ConuCopia was by far the largest convention of the five, and we were treated quite lavishly -- a two room suite at the Anaheim Marriott and a special liaison, Genny Dazzo, who went way out of her way to make sure everything we wanted was there. We're not sure they got equal value in return; we were only asked to be on a handful of program items and the ice cream social that opened the convention. That was a fun event; instead of the usual 'Meet the Guest' cattle call, ConuCopia set it up as a High School Reunion of George Orwell High, Class of 1984. There was even a small Photo Remembrance Book showing various pro guests and attending authors as 'teachers' and us as the Homecoming King and Queen. There were also pictures of the various scholastic organizations such as a the 'Light Saber Fencing Club', actually made up of local fans and members of the concom. A few times during the event we were even asked to sign the book under our photo. It was a pleasant way to start the convention.

We elected not to do speeches or be interviewed for our Guest of Honor event. Instead, we did a 'live fanzine', A Mimosa Fanthology. We felt the successes of Mimosa were probably the reason we'd been invited to be guests in the first place, so it seemed only right to let the fanzine (and thereby, our contributors) have much of the honor. So we brought a complete run of Mimosa to the convention with us, and picked out articles throughout the run that we would probably want to publish in a Best of Mimosa some day -- one or two articles from each issue. It turned out to be a *lot* of material, way too much for even the three-hour slot of time we had available (we'd have needed double that to get through them all). The audience was a bit small, only about ten people -- another sign that fanzine fandom has become just a small segment of science fiction fandom. Still, there were some avid fanzine readers there, and even one pro writer (Larry Niven); to keep as many around for as long as possible we enlisted some of them as readers; Mike Glyer, for instance, 'channeled' Ron Lee when he read Ron's article "The Wrath of Khat" from Mimosa 3, while David Bratman pretended he was Mike Glyer when he read Mike's "A Child's Garden of Hugos" from Mimosa 14. Mike Glyer later wrote in File 770 that by using other fans as readers, we had "hit on a clever way to draw an audience to the marathon readaloud." Thinking all the time, we are!

Being in the film center of the world, it would have been unusual if the convention committee had not taken advantage of the available resources and people who work in the industry. Media-oriented panels and events abounded, and there was even a Hong Kong movie festival, featuring some strange but yet pretty entertaining films of reasonable fantasy content (some featuring Sammo Hung and Jackie Chan when they were much younger). The strangest and maybe most entertaining of them all was The Bride With White Hair, which was described in the ConuCopia Pocket Guide as "the best sword and sorcery movie ever made by anyone anywhere." It might very well be! How best to describe it? How about: a 'Magic Realism' fairy tale where Chinese martial arts meet up with sorcery, with an heroic fantasy leading man, a mysterious beautiful witch who could ensnare victims in her long hair, and a fantastic yin-yang male-female villain who was leader of an Evil Cult. And on top of this, it was also a love story!

Besides the movies, there were also some television-related items, including a Buffy the Vampire Slayer panel (that Nicki was on) which had the misfortune of being scheduled the same time as Harlan Ellison's one man show. It resulted in a smaller audience than expected, though they made up for it in exuberance which carried through the divider walls -- some of the attendees at the Ellison hour wondered if an even bigger event was being held next door. J. Michael Straczynski was there, too, and his one panel item, expounding about the success of Babylon 5 and his new series Crusade, filled the large meeting room where it was held. Most of the cast of Crusade actually came to ConuCopia, supposedly to publicize an upcoming media convention being chaired by the chairman of ConuCopia. Their appearance seemed to be mostly sitting behind a table and signing photographs for fans at five dollars a pop. They were the consummate ensemble cast; they stayed as a group when they weren't in the convention area, even eating breakfast together at the hotel restaurant that morning, one table over from where we were sitting. That resulted in an amusing moment when Rich accidentally stole two slices of toast at the buffet bar from Marjean Holden (who plays the ship's doctor). It might have been a good time to get introduced to them, but it was early in the morning and we really didn't seem to have much in common -- other than a yen for buttered toast!

ConuCopia was a good convention, very competently run, and we had a good time. It was also an essential convention for us -- there wasn't much overlap with people who attended ConuCopia and those at Aussiecon Three the next week, and if we hadn't gone to ConuCopia, we wouldn't have seen them. Our friends Lowell Cunningham and Dorothy Tompkins from Knoxville, Tennessee, were there; we were pleased to learn that the success of the movie made from Lowell's Men In Black series for Dark Horse Comics is still bringing income for them. Once and future fanzine publishers Dick and Leah Smith were there, too, and we had an interesting dinner expedition with them one evening that also turned into an informal tour of downtown Anaheim. Elliott and Carole Weinstein brought a boysenberry pie with them for a late night snack with us and some other friends in our hotel suite. And then there was Bruce Pelz, who spent much of the convention sitting behind the Guest Sales table where he sold more than 100 copies of Mimosa over the weekend, not to mention the hundreds of dollars worth of books by the other Guests. It was a good place to sit down, rest, and watch the convention roll by, while talking with him about a far range of topics such as fan history projects, worldcon politics, and vacation cruises. Much to our surprise, Bruce didn't go on to Aussiecon, breaking a worldcon attendance string much longer than ours (which now stands at a relatively puny twelve years in a row). But an even longer string than that was broken for someone we had hoped to see at both ConuCopia and Aussiecon -- Forry Ackerman had other commitments, in Europe, and so broke his worldcon attendance string that dated back to 1952.

But we're getting ahead of ourselves. All too soon it was Monday night and we were at Los Angeles International Airport, where outside the departure lounge window there was a huge airplane with a kangaroo on its tail...

# # # #

"Tonight we will be flying fully one-third of the way around the world."

-- the Pilot of Qantas flight 100, Monday, August 30, 1999

The world is a big place, especially the Pacific Ocean. It took seventeen hours to go from Los Angeles to Melbourne, just about all of it over water. You 'lose' a day in transit when you cross the International Date Line, and so Tuesday, August 31, 1999 for us will always be 'The Day That Never Was'. We were seated smack in the middle of the plane, in the center of an interior row, right over the wing; we were also smack in the middle of a group of about twenty science fiction fans who were also going to Australia for the worldcon. Before the flight even got off the ground, there was a mini-convention of sorts in the Qantas departure lounge at LAX airport. It might have been bigger yet, but another large group of fans had instead booked on the United flight, which left about an hour after the Qantas one. There was one intermediate stop, in Auckland, New Zealand, which has a very nice airport. Some day we'd like to see more of the city and country than just that. And at a time other than 4:30 in the morning!

illo by Sheryl Birkhead It turned out that we didn't get to see much more than that of Australia -- just Melbourne and Sydney; there wasn't enough vacation time left, after five days in California, to take an extended tour of the country like some other fans were able to do. We had to content ourselves instead with a vicarious tour, listening to descriptions of various friends' travels, from Ayers Rock to the Great Barrier Reef, from Darwin to Tasmania, from the Blue Mountains to the Indian Ocean. But on the other hand, it turned out there was enough to do in Melbourne and Sydney that we never really felt pressed to take extended day trips. The only one we took our entire stay in Australia was a bus tour to the Healesville Animal Sanctuary north of Melbourne. There, we saw examples of just about all the indigenous wildlife of the continent, up close and personal. We found that echidnas and platypuses were a lot smaller than we'd imagined, kangaroos and wallabies a lot lazier, wombats and koalas a lot more gregarious, and lorikeets a lot more ubiquitous. Gift shops, though, seemed to be just about the same -- the tourist dollar rules, no matter where you are.

Aussiecon was in Melbourne, so that's where we were for most of our stay Down Under. And the first thing we learned about Melbourne was to watch out for the traffic when crossing streets! Motorists drive on the left side of the road in Australia, and it wasn't five minutes into our first walk outside the hotel that Rich was almost run down by an automobile because he looked the wrong way for oncoming traffic. A much better, and safer, way to see the city was by riding the Melbourne city trams. They go practically everywhere, even out to some of the nearby suburbs. There's even a special nightly dinner tram -- a restaurant on rails which travels a random path around the city as the night falls and the lights come on. (According to two of our friends who tried it, the meal is a bit pricy, but the experience is unique.) A free City Circle Tram line loops around the rectangular-shaped business district of the city, and it's a good place to learn more about Melbourne -- at each stop, a recorded message tells you a bit of history about one or two of the notable places nearby. It's a haven on chilly September days there, and not just for us tourists. We boarded the tram one afternoon for a 'circle tour' and sat down next to a much older man who seemed to welcome the opportunity to tell us even more about some of the buildings along the route. He was a pleasant traveling companion, and proved to be a veritable font of knowledge about the city. But he never got off the tram; he was still there when we disembarked after about 45 minutes. We decided that riding the tram was probably a cure for loneliness for him. Meeting and talking to people on the City Circle Tram was his life after retirement, and he was happy. We only hope we can find that much contentment in whatever we decide to do after our working days are over.

As far as sightseeing went, we had mixed luck. The tram tour worked out fine, but the day we reserved for visiting museums was a bit less successful. The Immigration Museum was fascinating from a cultural and historical perspective, but it was small enough that it didn't take very long to go through it. The Victoria State Museum, which is supposed to be a wonderful art museum, was closed for renovation while we were there; all of it we got to see were a couple of interesting fountain sculptures outside. Not far from the Victoria Museum is a large park that featured something unusual -- a flower clock on the side of a hill. It was in full bloom, but, being early spring, nothing else in the park was. We eventually walked as far as the Melbourne Observatory grounds, passing through a large War Memorial along the way. The Observatory's snack bar, where we had lunch, set a new personal record for us -- it was not only the most southerly point in our exploration of Melbourne, it became the most southerly place either of us have been in our lives!

The major things to do in downtown Melbourne are shopping and eating. Especially eating -- there must be a restaurant in every other store front there, and there are many wonderful cafés and ethnic restaurants. Not so pleasing, though, were all the American fast food places, including 7-11 and McDonalds. As usual, we didn't bother with those, but it was clear from the advertisements we saw that their usual fare had acquired an Australian essence. For instance, the Big Mac (a.k.a. the 'Big Oz') had all the usual fixings -- as well as a slice of beetroot!

While we enjoy eating, it seemed that much of our free time was spent shopping. The U.S. dollar is robust compared to the Australian dollar, so once we did the conversions, we found that the prices for just about everything were very affordable. There are several multi-story walk-through shopping malls in downtown Melbourne, but the best place to shop is the Victoria Market. Located on several acres of valuable land just outside the center rectangle of downtown, the mostly open-air Market had just about anything you could ever need, all in one place -- there was everything from farm produce to tourist souvenirs. It's where we bought most of our souvenirs and holiday gifts, and even the skirt Nicki wore at the Hugo Award Ceremonies. There's a guided 'foodie' tour of the Market that Nicki and several other fans took on the Friday morning of Aussiecon, which included a plastic fork and napkin for tasting some of the foods available from the food venders. It was the one tour of the trip where stomachs got tired before legs did!

The Centra Hotel and the adjacent convention center that hosted Aussiecon was located on the north bank of the Yarra River, just outside the circuit of the City Circle Tram. The view from the foyer lounge of ninth floor of the hotel, near where our room was, looked out across the river to the large gambling casino complex on the south bank. One of the features of the promenade between the casino and the river was a series of eight tall rectangular towers, situated like monoliths about every fifty meters along the terrace. These we came to know as the 'Pillars of Fire' because they had one other distinct feature -- starting in the early evening until midnight, every hour on the hour they lit up the night sky with an orchestrated display of pyrotechnics as natural gas was discharged from their tops and ignited into large fireballs. When you viewed the display from the hotel across the river, you could see that the fireballs were shot off according to a programmed sequence -- individually from left to right, then two at a time, then four at a time, and finally all of them at once. Then, to conclude each five minute show, they shot off some really *big* fireballs; from across the river, these looked to be about three stories tall. If you were standing near the base of one of the towers when one of these went off you might have thought the end of the world had arrived. You'd think that all this commotion every evening would serve to keep all the seagulls out of the area, but it doesn't -- between 'performances' we could see gulls using the tops of the towers as convenient lookout perches. We concluded that they must have some kind of warning when one of the fireball shows is about to begin -- either that, or some of the restaurants in the casino complex have found a ready source of instant-cooked poultry!

The worldcon itself was pleasant and friendly. There were far fewer people attending Aussiecon than who go to a North American worldcon, so there weren't many instances of overflowing crowds at program events. One exception was the Buffy panel, which had a larger attendance than even the one at ConuCopia had! Nicki was once again on that panel (she was a last-minute addition); it was the only program event, other than the Hugo Award Ceremony, that either of us was on the entire convention.

As for the Hugo Awards, we were pleased and honored to be a nominee, but it was no surprise to us that Mimosa was not voted the Best Fanzine; we thought it unlikely Mimosa would be more popular with the voters than the local Melbourne-based fanzine, Thyme. It was a surprise, then, when Dave Langford's newszine, Ansible, was announced as the winner. Dave, who was at the convention, may have felt the same way, too -- his acceptance speech mostly expressed condolences to Thyme's editor, Alan Stewart, who is also Ansible's Australian agent. It was one of the few times we'd ever known Dave to be somewhat at a loss for words!

Not being on many program items does have its advantages, actually -- you have a lot more time to do other things such as seeing what's going on outside the convention center, or seeing other parts of the convention, or our favorite, meeting and talking to people. We did a lot of that during Aussiecon, with people we already knew and some we didn't. We're beginning to think that Charlie Brown is starting to like us; he invited us over to his table one morning for breakfast, and the Aussiecon issue of Locus had a reasonably nice photo of us. And Greg Benford, the Guest of Honor, gave us some nice egoboo about Mimosa -- he asked us to reconsider our decision to end publication, and even said he'd write another article for us for a future issue.

Rich, Kate, John, and Nicki One new acquaintance for us was Justine Larbalestier, from the University of Sydney, who is researching a new book about the New York Futurians fan club of the 1930s and '40s. There was a memorable dinner expedition with Mark and Vanessa Loney (and about a dozen other fans); we had met Mark and Vanessa during Mark's three-year job-related assignment to the Washington, D.C., area earlier in the decade. Mark was in charge of Aussiecon Publications (we were his 'Maryland Branch Office', in charge of production and distribution of the last three Progress Reports). That dinner featured good food and excellent conversation -- when we could hear it! (We had been seated next to a very good, but very loud, folk music group.) Our friend Adrienne Losin was at Aussiecon, usually camped out behind her table in the Dealers Room; we've known her since 1980 when she was traveling in North America and came to Tennessee (where we were then living) for one of the Chattacons. And finally there were John Blum and Kate Orman, who live in Sydney and write science fiction. We hadn't met them before, but were on the lookout for them and finally ran into them the next-to-last day of the convention. The reason we wanted to meet them? John's father, here in Maryland, asked us to. He's our dentist.

There were fewer parties at Aussiecon than at any other worldcon we've been to, no doubt partly due to its smaller attendance. The ones that did happen, though, became focal points for the convention after the program events were over each day. The ConJosé bid party was originally scheduled to go two nights, but was cut back to one when it became apparent that the bid was going to win handily (against a semi-hoax Roswell, New Mexico bid) and that the party budget wouldn't be sufficient for two nights at the exorbitant catering rates the Centra Hotel had forced on them. Maybe it's just as well; with the large crowd of people there, it wasn't all that enjoyable an event. There was almost a competition to grab food while it was still available; a constant feeding frenzy developed as people jostled for position around the food bar, as if they were in an aquarium instead of a multipurpose meeting room. A much more laid-back affair was held in the same space the next evening by the ConCancun-in-2003 bidders, who actually did dress up the meeting room to look like an aquarium. A better use of resources for light snacks instead of dinner fare actually provided more to eat at a lower overall cost. And because it wasn't a substitute for dinner, the party was less crowded as people cycled in and out more frequently. The best party of all, though, was the one hosted by Japanese fans the last night of the convention. Upon entering, you were met by one of the hosts who gave you a cloth headband and helped to tie it around your head. Their secondary party, upstairs, even served saki in an ornamental ceramic cup that they then presented to you as a souvenir! Most of the Japanese fans who come to worldcons speak English, but not all. The young lady dressed in traditional costume who greeted us at the door was having a nice time meeting people, but it was obvious she was having trouble with the language barrier. When Nicki commented to her on how wonderful her dress was, she was so anxious to understand what Nicki had said that she rushed across the room and dragged one of the other Japanese fans back with her to act as translator. Rich, accidentally standing in the way of all this, had to step lively to avoid becoming part of the carpet!

Maureen and Paul Even though Sydney is the largest population center in Australia, all three Antipodean worldcons have been held in Melbourne. That's where most of the fans are. The local fan club, the Melbourne Science Fiction Club, meets every Friday night, and the number of people who attend is about the same for that of a typical Washington Science Fiction Association meeting. One of the reasons we spent an extra few days in Melbourne following the worldcon was so we could go to a MSFC meeting, and we weren't the only ones who had that idea. The meeting we attended, on September 10th, also had several other out-of-towners. Kevin Standlee and Cheryl Morgan from California were there, trying to interest local fans in buying memberships to the 2002 Worldcon, ConJosé. Janice Gelb, the DUFF delegate, had completed her month-long stay in Australia and had gone back to the United States by then, but the current GUFF and TAFF delegates, Paul Kincaid and Maureen Kincaid Speller, were at the meeting, like us with cameras primed. (We'd taken several photos of each other during the convention -- so many, actually, that we came to call them 'drive-by shootings'.) The MSFC meeting and the Nicki, Rich, and Irwin group dinner that preceded it turned out to be our best opportunity to meet local fans, even more so than Aussiecon. It was the only time we really had a chance to talk with the 1998 DUFF delegate, Terry Frost, and Aussiecon's Fan Guest, Bruce Gillespie (whose fine fanzine, SF Commentary, was surprisingly not a Hugo finalist). We didn't stay with fan friends during our additional time in Melbourne, but we did have meals with some of them -- Alan Stewart and Donna Heenan one evening and Irwin Hirsh another. We'd been looking forward to meeting Irwin, whom we'd just missed several times during the convention. After our meal with him, he led us to the site of the previous two Melbourne worldcons, the former Southern Cross Hotel -- now a moribund site, fenced-off from the street and undergoing either a massive renovation or outright demolition (we're not sure which). If we'd stayed in Melbourne one more day, Irwin was going to get us into an Aussie Rules football game, which would have been fun, but by then we were in Sydney.

# # # #

"Sydney is a glittering, lively city with a fabulously beautiful harbour at its centre."

-- Lonely Planet's
New South Wales guidebook

Sydney is a city that more than lives up to its reputation. We spent only three days there together -- a severe miscalculation, as there's a lot more to see and do in Sydney than can be fit into a long weekend. We tried to maximize our remaining time, so we did some of the most obvious, touristy things, such as a tour of the Opera House and a Harbour Cruise, at first opportunity. In fact, we might have done the Harbour Cruise a bit too soon -- our first night in the city we reserved for an evening cruise, but the recorded commentary that pointed out all the notable things to see on the shore was the same one used for daylight cruises. So when we were told that some of the mansions on the shore of Double Bay were owned by movie stars such as Kevin Costner and Tom Cruise, what we saw out there was mostly darkness. And when the recorded commentary described how you could get to the Sydney Zoo by taking an inclined railway from the ferry terminus at the harbour, all we saw up there was a black hole. Still, both the Opera House and the Harbour Bridge are spectacular at night, and the best view of each is from the middle of the harbour. So was it worth the fare? We thought so, but ours wasn't the only opinion. One of the other passengers on the cruise, a teenager with a backpack, must have been disappointed by the view, or else he'd seen it all before. Not two minutes after the ferryboat left Circular Quay he was sound asleep, and didn't awaken until the tour was almost over. We left the pier wondering if he had found that a gently-rolling boat was a personal cure for insomnia!

Rich and the Sydney Harbour Bridge The more time we spent at the Circular Quay waterfront, the more certain we were that the real 'signature image' of Sydney, the one you remember best about the city, is the Harbour Bridge, not the Opera House. It's one of the largest steel arch bridges in existence and dominates the harbour skyline, though not everybody in Sydney likes it very well (some refer to it as 'The Big Coathanger'). You can see the bridge from almost every point of interest in the city, and we found that it crept into many of our photos of Sydney, even the ones where we weren't trying to include it. About the only way avoid it was to actually be on the bridge when taking photographs! There's a pedestrian footway that crosses the bridge on its east side, the side the Opera House is on, and there are several places midway that are ideal for photographers. The only problem is the brisk winds, but there's a high mesh fence that will capture a hat on even the breeziest day. For the more adventuresome, there's the Bridge Climb, where it's possible to actually walk up the arch of the bridge to its very top, about 150 meters above the harbor, with only a waisthigh railing between you and the abyss (though you're tethered to the railings for safety). The view up there is said to be spectacular, but the price is, too -- about one hundred Australian dollars per person for the experience. We decided to take a pass on that. Something we found a little more accessible (as well as affordable) was the Sydney Observatory, located on a hill not far from the bridge. There was more to see there than we thought; besides the usual complement of telescopes there were also some interactive video games that served to educate schoolchildren (and us oldsters too!) about the nature of the cosmos and some of the deep sky wonders it contains. But best of all, it was located in a picturesque park, on the site of an old fort, right there in downtown Sydney; it's not only a good place for astronomy, it's also a good place for events like wedding receptions, and there was one going on the day we were there. We might have joined the festivities, but we were dressed a bit too much like fans. Besides, our accents would have given us away!

Susan, Susan's mother, and Nicki Time passes too quickly. After our three days in Sydney, Nicki's vacation time had just about expired; as much as she wanted to extend the stay, it was time to return to North America. Rich's stay was actually a bit longer than that; he had a technical conference to attend in Singapore before he came home, so he remained in Sydney an additional five days, taking walkabouts in the scenic headlands that separate Sydney Harbour from the Pacific Ocean, trailwalking Pacific vistas near Bondi and Manly Beaches, and even spending a day touristing and shopping with two North American fan friends (Jeanne Mealy and John Stanley, from Minneapolis) who were still in the country. Our trip to Australia was a true voyage of discovery for us, and what we'll take away from it are the myriad images and memories of people, things, events, and sights encountered along the way. One of them happened the second night of our stay in Sydney. Susan Bellenger, a fan we'd met on the day trip to Healesville, invited us for dinner out to her home in Merrylands, where the skies are much darker than in Sydney or Melbourne. It was there that we finally got to view something we'd been wanting to see for decades -- Alpha and Beta Centauri and the stars of the Southern Cross. The total unfamiliarity of the southern sky served to remind us how far we were from home, and how exotic the southern hemisphere was to us; the Southern Cross, like Australia had become for us after two weeks there, was the only part we felt we really knew anything about. There's a lot more to see and do Down Under; someday we hope we'll get another chance. But as for finally seeing the Southern Cross, it turned out there was a hidden connection for us that we hadn't known about: the second brightest star in the constellation, Beta Crucis, also has a more formal name. It's known as 'Mimosa'.

All illustrations by Sheryl Birkhead
Photo of Rich, Kate, John and Nicki by Adrienne Losin
Photo of Nicki, Rich and Irwin by restaurant waitress.
Photo of bridge by Nicki Lynch
All other photos by Rich Lynch

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